Low-Carb Journal Club

LOW-CARB JOURNAL CLUB


The science is growing at a rapid pace


Recommended Research Papers/Journals

Each resource is broadly categorised into the following:

  • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Diabetes Management
  • Dietary Guidelines
  • Fasting
  • Insulin - Insulin resistance, Hyperinsulinemia
  • Lipidology
  • Metabolic Health
  • Weight loss

Cancer

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Cancer as a mitochondrial metabolic disease

Cancer is widely considered a genetic disease involving nuclear mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

But is it a mitochondrial metabolic disease?

Cardiovascular Disease

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Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE)

High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.

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Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet.

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Low-carbohydrate diets differing in carbohydrate restriction improve cardiometabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults: A randomised clinical trial

Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have a positive effect on markers of health. Adherence to the allocation of carbohydrate was more easily achieved in MCD, and LCD groups compared to VLCKD and there were comparable improvements in weight loss and waist circumference and greater improvements in HDL-c and TG with greater carbohydrate restriction.

Diabetes Management

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Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base

Authors present major evidence for low-carbohydrate diets as first approach for diabetes. Benefits do not require weight loss although nothing is better for weight reduction. Carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce or eliminate need for medication. There are no side effects comparable with those seen in intensive pharmacologic treatment.

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Why Low Carb Diets for Type 1 Patients?

Less intake of carbohydrates equals less hypo’s and less glucose variability. These studies have also shown that there is a 20% greater chance of an estimation error in a meal containing a high carbohydrate content versus a low carbohydrate content.

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Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Care Model for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

These results demonstrate that a novel metabolic and continuous remote care model can support adults with T2D to safely improve HbA1c, weight, and other biomarkers while reducing diabetes medication use.

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Nutrition Therapy for Adults WithDiabetes or Pre-diabetes: A Consensus Report

This Consensus Report is intended to provide clinical professionals with evidence based guidance about individualising nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or pre-diabetes. Strong evidence supports the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of nutrition therapy as a component of quality diabetes care, including its integration into the medical management of diabetes.

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Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low–Carbohydrate Diet

Exceptional glycemic control of T1DM with low rates of adverse events was reported by a community of children and adults who consume a VLCD. 

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The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

Dietary Guidelines

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Assessing the nutrient intake of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet: a hypothetical case study design

Despite macronutrient proportions not aligning with current national dietary guidelines, a well-planned LCHF meal plan can be considered micronutrient replete. This is an important finding for health professionals, consumers and critics of LCHF nutrition, as it dispels the myth that these diets are suboptimal in their micronutrient supply. As with any diet, for optimal nutrient achievement, meals need to be well formulated.

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Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines 

National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the US and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) by reducing fat intake. To date, no analysis of the evidence base for these recommendations has been undertaken. The present study examines the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) available to the US and UK regulatory committees at their respective points of implementation.

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Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

Fasting

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Early Time‐Restricted Feeding Reduces Appetite and Increases Fat Oxidation But Does Not Affect Energy Expenditure in Humans

Meal‐timing interventions facilitate weight loss primarily by decreasing appetite rather than by increasing energy expenditure. eTRF may also increase fat loss by increasing fat oxidation.

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Diverse metabolic reactions activated during 58-hr fasting are revealed by non-targeted metabolomic analysis of human blood

Summary of changes in the blood metabolome during 58 hr of fasting. Prolonged human fasting causes a much more metabolically active state than previously recognized. 

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Alternate-day fasting in non-obese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism

Some evidence suggests that alternate-day fasting may also prolong the life span.

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Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes

The survival and reproductive success of all organisms depends upon their ability to obtain food. Accordingly, animals have evolved behavioural and physiological adaptations that enable them to survive periods of food scarcity or absence.

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Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans

The first experimental evidence in humans that caloric restriction improves memory in the elderly. Our findings further point to increased insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammatory activity as mediating mechanisms.

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The roles of macrophage autophagy in atherosclerosis

The roles of macrophages in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis are increasingly investigated. Autophagy is a self-protecting cellular catabolic pathway. 

Insulin - Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia

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Hyperinsulinemia: A unifying theory of chronic disease?

Hyperinsulinemia directly and indirectly contributes to a vast array of metabolic diseases including all inflammatory conditions, all vascular diseases, GD, T2D, NAFLD, obesity, certain cancers and dementias.

Lipidology

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Low triglycerides-high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease.

Men with conventional risk factors for IHD have a low risk of IHD if they have low TG--high HDL-C levels. 

Based on an estimate of attributable risk, 35% of IHD might have been prevented if all subjects had had low TG--high HDL-C levels.

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Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and Markers of Inflammation

Low fat vs low carb.

Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic Health

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Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss

Consistent with the perspective that MetS is a pathologic state that manifests as dietary carbohydrate intolerance, these results show that compared with eucaloric high-carbohydrate intake, LC/high-fat diets benefit MetS independent of whole-body or fat mass.

Weight Loss

Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss 

Consistent with the carbohydrate-insulin model, lowering dietary carbohydrate increased energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance. This metabolic effect may improve the success of obesity treatment, especially among those with high insulin secretion.

It is time to bust the myth of physical inactivity and obesity: you cannot outrun a bad diet

The public health messaging around diet and exercise, and their relationship to the epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity, has been corrupted by vested interests .Celebrity endorsements of sugary drinks, and the association of junk food and sport, must end. The ‘health halo’ legitimisation of nutritionally deficient products is misleading and unscientific

Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.

In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic effects than those assigned to the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets [corrected] While questions remain about long-term effects and mechanisms, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet may be considered a feasible alternative recommendation for weight loss.

Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet

Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. 

The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity: Beyond “Calories In, Calories Out”

Despite intensive research, the causes of the obesity epidemic remain incompletely understood and conventional calorie-restricted diets continue to lack long-term efficacy. According to the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM) of obesity, recent increases in the consumption of processed, high–glycemic-load carbohydrates produce hormonal changes that promote calorie deposition in adipose tissue, exacerbate hunger, and lower energy expenditure.

Practitioners

Ditch The Carbs

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